Wardley Mapping was created by Simon Wardley, as a tool to assist business executives and managers in managing and planning for their business. Mr. Wardley contends that few managers have the tools necessary to engage in strategic planning, or even to understand their environment, and therefore resort to vague directional platitudes and adoption of popular ideas. Instead, he proposes a methodology for mapping a business that clarifies the current strategic state of the business, and provides directional hints about how the business should be organized, where value can be extracted now and in the future, and some anticipation of where and when disruption might strike.
About other planning systems, Mr. Wardley says:
A map must be visual and context specific. It must have components but more than this it requires an anchor, position and movement. The quickest way I know to determine if something is a map or not is to move a component (i.e. use movement) and see if this changes the meaning of what is being looked at. If it doesn't then it's not a map and hence it is of little use for learning about a space. 
Introduction to Wardley Mapping
Simon Wardley OSCON 2015 Keynote (video): "Situation Normal, Everything Must Change"
Why Use Wardley Mapping?
Simon Wardley OSCON 2014 Keynote (video): "Introduction to Value Chain Mapping"
Mr. Wardley's blog on mapping
Better for Less paper
Governance of Technology Change
"Wardley Mapping Introductory Course" offered by Leading Edge Forum
YouTube playlist on Wardley Mapping