Difference between revisions of "Doctrine Patterns"

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===Know your users===
===Know your users===
e.g. customers, shareholders, regulators, staff
e.g. customers, shareholders, regulators, staff
From Simon’s blog:
Any value we create is through meeting the needs of others. A mantra of "not sucking as much as the competitors" is not acceptable. We must be the best we can be.<ref>https://blog.gardeviance.org/2016/05/wardleys-doctrine.html</ref>

Revision as of 05:46, 5 June 2019

Phases of doctrine.png

These are patterns that are universally useful. Although they are all useful, there is a priority to their usefulness. Start with the Phase I patterns first, and work to adopt the later phases after earlier phases are more or less mastered. This list of doctrine patterns can be used as a checklist to evaluate an organization, but simply ticking all the boxes won’t make an organization healthy. Each doctrine is a skill or habit, so the real goal is to train the organization to repeatedly use each skill.[1]

From chapter 11 in the book:

Now you have an idea of your landscape and how it can change, you’ll want to start doing stuff about it. However, there are two classes of choice ; those which are universally applicable and those which are context specific. The universally applicable choices are a set of principles which we all should apply. These are your ‘doctrine’.[2]

From chapter 18 in the book:

One of the most common questions I’m asked is which bits of doctrine should we apply first? The answer to this is, I don’t know.
I do know that there is an order to doctrine. For example, before you can apply a pioneer – settler – town planner structure (i.e. design for constant evolution) then you need to be thinking about aptitude (skillsets) and attitude (how those skillsets change) within a company. But this also requires you to have applied a cell based structure (i.e. think small teams) to start noticing the differences. But before you apply a cell based structure then you need understand the landscape (i.e. focus on high situational awareness). But before you can understand the landscape, you need to clearly understand what the user needs (i.e. focus on user needs). However, beyond broad strokes, I don’t what bits of doctrine matter more i.e. is transparency more important than setting exceptional standards? [3]

Phase I - Stop Self Harm

From chapter 18 in the book:

The focus in this first phase is simply awareness and removal of duplication. What I’m aiming for is not to radically change the environment but to stop further damage being caused. Hence the emphasis is on understanding your user needs, improving situational awareness, removing duplication, challenging assumptions, getting to understand the details of what is done and introducing a systematic mechanism of learning – such as the use of maps with a group such as spend control.[4]

Know your users

e.g. customers, shareholders, regulators, staff

From Simon’s blog:

Any value we create is through meeting the needs of others. A mantra of "not sucking as much as the competitors" is not acceptable. We must be the best we can be.[5]

From chapter 11 in the book:

When mapping a landscape then know who your users are e.g. customers, shareholders, regulators and staff.[6]

Challenge assumptions

speak up and question

From chapter 11 in the book:

Maps allow for assumptions to be visually exposed. You should encourage challenge to any map with a focus on creating a better map and a better understanding. Don't be afraid of challenge, there is no place for ego if you want to learn.[7]

Use appropriate methods

e.g. agile vs lean vs six sigma

From chapter 11 in the book:

Try to avoid the tyranny of one. Understand that there is no magic solution and that you have to use multiple methods  (e.g. agile or lean or six sigma) as appropriate. In any large system, multiple methods may be used at the same time. Be mindful of ego here, tribes can form with almost religious fervour about the righteousness of their method.[8]

From chapter 18 in the book:

Governance had to accept that there are currently no single methods of management that are suitable for all environments. The use of multiple methods and techniques based upon context had to become a norm.[9]

Use a systematic mechanism of learning

bias towards data

From chapter 11 in the book:

The purpose of mapping is not just to create a map and a shared understanding but also to learn climatic patterns, doctrine and context specific play. Maps provide a systematic way of doing this as long as you collate, review and learn from them. Have a bias towards such learning and the use of data.[10]

From chapter 18 in the book:

The governance system must provide a mechanism of consistent measurement against outcomes and for continuous improvement of measurements.[11]

Focus on user needs

From chapter 11 in the book:

An essential part of mapping is the anchor of user needs. Ideally you want to create an environment where your needs are achieved by meeting the needs of your users. Be mindful that these needs will evolve due to competition and in the uncharted space they are uncertain. Also, be aware that users may have different and competing needs and be prepared to balance the conflict.[12]

Focus on high situational awareness

Understand what is being considered

From chapter 11 in the book:

There is a reasonably strong correlation between awareness and performance, so focus on this. Try to understand the landscape that you are competing in and understand any proposals in terms of this. Look before you leap.[13]

From chapter 18 in the book:

A major failing of “Better for Less” was the lack of emphasis on maps. I need to increase situational awareness beyond simple mental models and structures such as ILC. To achieve this, we needed to develop maps within government which requires an anchor (user need), an understanding of position (the value chain and components involved) and an understanding of movement (evolution). To begin with, the proposed governance system needed to clearly reflect user needs in all its decision-making processes. The users include not only departmental users but also the wider public who will interact with any services provided. It was essential, therefore, that those users’ needs were determined at the outset, represented in the creation of any proposal and any expected outcomes of any proposal are set against those needs. But this was not enough, we needed also the value chain that provided those user needs and how evolved the components were. Maps therefore became a critical part of the Governance structure.[14]

Remove bias and duplication

From chapter 11 in the book:

Use multiple maps to help you remove duplication and bias within an organisation. You will often find in any large organisation that there are people custom building what is a commodity or rebuilding something that exists elsewhere. Remember, that they're not doing this because they're daft but because of pre-existing inertia or the lack of any effective communication mechanism i.e. they simply don't know it exists elsewhere. Be warned, the level of duplication within most organisations vastly exceeds any expectations that they might have and you're often treading on the toes of someone's pet project. Large distributed companies often talk about duplication in the single digits e.g. we have six enterprise content management systems. They tend to react poorly when it is "discovered" that they have hundreds or even "thousands". People can get very defensive in this space.[15]

Use a common language

necessary for collaboration

From chapter 11 in the book:

A necessity for effective collaboration is a common language. Maps allow many people with different aptitudes (e.g. marketing, operations, finance and IT) to work together in order to create a common understanding. Collaboration without a common language is just noise before failure.[16]

From chapter 18 in the book:

The governance system had to provide a mechanism for coordination and engagement across groups including departments and spend control. This requires a mechanism of shared learning – for example, discovery and dissemination of examples of good practice. To achieve this, we must have a common language. Maps were that language.[17]

Think small

know the details

From chapter 11 in the book:

Know the details, use small teams and break large landscapes into small contracts. Don't be chased away by fears of complexity of management or "too many interfaces to manage".[18]

Phase II - Becoming More Context Aware

From chapter 18 in the book:

Whilst phase I is about stopping the rot, phase II builds upon this by helping us to start considering and using the context. Hence the emphasis is on using appropriate tools and methods, thinking about FIRE, managing inertia, having a bias towards action, moving quickly, being transparent about what we do, distributing power and understanding that strategy is an iterative process.[19]

Be transparent

A bias towards open

From chapter 11 in the book:

Have a bias towards openness within your organisation. If you want to effectively learn about the landscape then you need to share your maps with others and allow them to add their wisdom and their challenge to the process. Building maps in secret in your organisations is a surefire way of having a future meeting where somebody points out the blindingly obvious thing you have missed.[20]

From chapter 18 in the book:

The governance system had to be entirely transparent. For example, proposals must be published openly in one place and in one format through a shared and public pipeline. This must allow for examination of proposals both internally and externally of Government to encourage interaction of departments and public members to any proposal.[21]

Focus on the outcome, not a contract

e.g. Worth based development

From chapter 11 in the book:

When using contracts then try to focus on the outcome and what you're trying to achieve rather than the contract itself.  Realise that different types of contract will be needed e.g. outsourced or time and material based or worth based development. Along with a focus on outcomes, try and keep contracts constrained in terms of time and budget.[22]

Think aptitude and attitude

From chapter 11 in the book:

Understand that people not only have aptitudes (e.g. finance, engineering, operations and marketing) but different attitudes (pioneer, settler and town planner). The mindsets are different.[23]

Some people are better at creating something brand new (pioneers), some people are better at taking something already created and making it reproducible (settlers), and some people are good at moving a small scale production into large scale production (town planners). These are three different skills, work styles, and possibly even personality types. You rarely find one person who can do all three, and so it is better to match the type of work to a person with the matching work style.

Full article: Pioneers settlers town planners

Strategy is iterative, not linear

fast reactive cycles

From chapter 11 in the book:

Understand that strategy is iterative. You need to adapt in fast cycles according to the changing environment. The best you can hope for is a direction, a constant process of learning and improvement of your gameplay along the way.[24]

Move fast

An imperfect plan executed today is better than a perfect plan executed tomorrow.

From chapter 11 in the book:

The speed at which you move around the cycle is important. There is little point implementing FIRE like principles in developing a system if it takes you a year to make decision to act. An imperfect plan executed today is better than a perfect plan executed tomorrow.[25]

From chapter 18 in the book:

We understood that there would be inertia to the changes we were proposing and that existing culture and structures could well rise to combat us. We put in place an initial concept of work streams that targeted different areas. The idea was that if we ever put this in place then we’d have 100 days or so to make the changes before resistance overwhelmed us. [26]

Use appropriate tools

e.g. mapping, financial models

Think small

as in teams

A bias towards action

learn by playing the game

From chapter 11 in the book:

This is best explained through the word's or Rimmer's Study Habit (an episode from Red Dwarf).
"The first weeks of study, he would always devote to the construction of a revision timetable. Weeks of patient effort would be spent planning, designing and creating a revision schedule which, when finished, were minor works of art.
Every hour of every day was subdivided into different study periods, each labelled in his lovely, tiny copperplate hand; then painted over in watercolours, a different colour for each subject, the colours gradually becoming bolder and more urgent shades as the exam time approached. The effect was as if a myriad tiny rainbows had splintered and sprinkled across the poster-sized sheet of creamwove card.
The only problem was this: because the timetables often took seven or eight weeks, and sometimes more, to complete, by the time Rimmer had finished them the exam was almost on him. He'd then have to cram three months of astronavigation revision into a single week. Gripped by an almost deranging panic, he'd then decide to sacrifice the first two days of that final week to the making of another timetable. This time for someone who had to pack three months of revision into five days"
Do not attempt to create the perfect map. Have a bias towards action because the landscape will change and you will discover more through action. You learn by playing the game.[27]

Be pragmatic

It doesn't matter if the cat is black or white, as long as it catches mice

From chapter 11 in the book:

Focus on meeting the user needs and simplify as much as possible. There will always be edge cases or a way to make something more perfect nut but if what you're building could use a component that already exists then try to avoid the urge to re-invent it. If you're a taxi company then investing your funds into making that perfect tyre will not help your business. Always challenge when you depart from using something that already exists. The old adage of "It doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white as long as it catches mice" is relevant here.[28]

From chapter 18 in the book:

We accepted that not everything would fit into the structure or work streams that we had described. A majority would and it was the cost reduction and improvement in those cases that would generate the most savings. However, it was important to acknowledge that a one-size fits all approach would not work and will be vulnerable to inertia. Pragmatism to achieve the change was more important than ideology. We also had to maintain the existing IT estate whilst acknowledging the future will require a fundamentally different approach based upon agile, open and effective local delivery. We would have to not only audit but sweat the existing assets until they could be replaced.[29]

Manage inertia

e.g. existing practice, political capital, previous investment

Inertia patterns

From chapter 11 in the book:

At some point you will face inertia to change e.g. existing practice, political capital or previous investment. Try and understand the root cause. Ideally use a map to anticipate before you encounter and hence have prepared solutions & counter arguments. If possible, use the maps to enable people to discover their own inertia.[30]

Use standards where appropriate

From chapter 11 in the book:

If something is industrialised and if standards exist then try to use them. There's always a temptation to build a better standard but try to avoid this or building layers on top of other "standards" unless you have an extremely compelling reason to do so. If you need a toaster, buy a toaster and don't try building one from scratch.[31]

Distribute power and decision making

From chapter 11 in the book:

Have a bias towards distributing power from the centre including yourself. Put power in the hands of those who are closest to the choices that need to be made.[32]

From chapter 18 in the book:

Departments and groups should be able organize themselves as appropriate to meet central policy. Hence the governance procedure should refrain from directly imposing project methodologies and structure on departments and groups and allow for autonomous decision making. Improvements to ways of operating could be achieved through challenging via maps i.e. if one department thought that everything should be outsourced, we could use their own maps to help them challenge their own thinking.[33]

Think Fast, Inexpensive, Restrained, and Elegant (FIRE)

From chapter 11 in the book:

Break large systems down into small components, use and re-use inexpensive components where possible, constrain budgets and time, build as simply and as elegantly as possible.[34]

From chapter 18 in the book:

Governance should encourage an approach of fast, inexpensive, simple and tiny rather than creation of slow, expensive, complex and large systems to achieve value for money. Any reasonably large technology proposal should be broken down into smaller components with any in-house development achieved through small teams. The breaking down of large systems would also help demonstrate that multiple methods were usually needed along with encouraging re-use. However, we should be prepared for inertia and counter arguments such as the “complexity of managing interfaces”. The interfaces existed regardless of whether we tried to ignore them or not.[35]

Effectiveness over efficiency

From chapter 11 in the book:

Whilst optimising flow is important, be careful not to waste valuable time making the ineffective more efficient. Understand the landscape and how it is changing before you attempt to optimise flow. Remove the ineffective before you focus on efficiency.[36]

Manage failure

From chapter 11 in the book:

In any system there is risk. Use the maps where possible to help you understand failure modes, what can go wrong and what will be impacted if a component fails. Try where possible to mitigate risks by distributing systems, by designing for failure and by the constant introduction of failure (use of chaos engines such as Netflix's chaos monkey). Mitigate against known failure modes such as building large scale (death star) like efforts.[37]

Phase III - Better for Less

From chapter 18 in the book:

In this phase, we’re focusing on constant improvement which means optimizing flows in the system, seeking the best, a bias towards the new, thinking big, inspiring others, committing to the path, accepting uncertainty, taking responsibility and providing purpose, master & autonomy. This is the phase which is most about change and moving in a better direction whereas the previous phases are about housekeeping. [38]

Provide purpose, mastery & autonomy

From chapter 11 in the book:

Provide people with purpose (including a moral imperative and a scope) for action. Enable them to build mastery in their chosen area and give them the freedom (& autonomy) to act.[39]

Do better with less

Continual improvement

From chapter 11 in the book:

Have a bias towards continual improvement.[40]

From chapter 18 of the book:

Such an approach had to be transparent and measured in terms of cost. It had to provide challenge for what was currently being built. From this we developed the idea of a scrutiny board which later became spend control under OCTO. It wasn’t enough to simply reduce spending; our focus was on dramatically reducing waste whilst improving public services. We couldn’t do this without measurement.
We understood that this would not be a big bang approach but an iterative process – a constant cycle of doing better with less. To this end, we proposed the use of open data with a focus on the Government becoming more transparent. We also added the use of open source including the practices associated with it and the use of open standards to drive competitive markets. [41]

Be the owner

Take responsibility

From chapter 11 in the book:

Take responsibility for your environment, your actions within it and how you play the game. You could outsource this to a third party in the way a chess player could outsource their gameplay to another but you won't learn and it is still you that loses.[42]

Set exceptional standards

Great is just not good enough

From chapter 11 in the book:

Don't settle for as good as or slightly better than competitors. Always strive for the very best that can be achieved.[43]

Optimise flow

remove bottlenecks

From chapter 11 in the book:

Within a map there will be many flows of capital - whether information, risk, social or financial. Try to optimise this and remove bottlenecks.[44]

Strategy is complex

There will be uncertainty

From chapter 11 in the book:

There will be uncertainty, emerging patterns and surprises along the way. That's the very nature of competition due to the involvement of other actors. Embrace this, don't fall for the temptation that you can plan the future. What matters is not the plan but the preparation and your ability to adapt.[45]

Commit to the direction, be adaptive along the path

crossing the river by feeling the stones

From chapter 11 in the book:

Once you've set a direction commit to it. There will often be hurdles and obstacles but don't just simply abandon a direction because a single step is challenging. Try to find paths around the obstacles. If you're building a system and a common component is not as expected then that can often prove a market opportunity.[46]

From chapter 18 in the book:

To enable the change, we needed a clear and effective message from authority combined with a commitment to change. However, in the past this has been notoriously difficult as only one minister in the Cabinet Office (Tom Watson MP) prior to 2010 had any real commitment to understanding technology. However, with a change of Government there might be an opportunity with a new ministerial team.
To support of all this, we proposed a structure based upon the innovate – leverage – commoditise model. The structure included innovation funds operating at local levels, a scrutiny board encouraging challenge along with a common technology service providing industrialised components. The structure was based upon concepts of open, it was data driven with emphasis on not just defining but measuring success. It was iterative and adaptive using constant feedback from the frontline and citizens alike. To support this, we would have to develop in-house capabilities in engineering including more agile like approaches. We would also need to build a curriculum for confidence and understanding of the issues of IT for mid ranking to senior officials and ministers. We would need take a more modular approach to creating systems that encouraged re-use. We would need to be prepared to adapt the model itself as we discovered more.[47]

A bias towards the new

Be curious, take appropriate risks

From chapter 11 in the book:

Whatever you do will evolve. So have a bias towards the new, be curious and take appropriate risks. Be willing to experiment.[48]

From chapter 18 in the book:

We focused on an outside-in approach to innovation where change was driven and encouraged at the local level through seed funds rather than Government trying to force its own concept of change through “big IT”. The role of central Government was reduced to providing engineering expertise, an intelligent customer function to challenge what was done, industrialised component services, encouragement of change and showing what good looked like.[49]

Be humble

Listen, be selfless, have fortitude

From chapter 11 in the book:

Listen to others, be selfless, have fortitude and be humble. Inspire others by who you are and what you do. There are many ways to manipulate the landscape e.g. through marketing, persuading others that what is a commodity is somehow different or that a product is unique to them. But these manipulations come with a cost not just externally but internally. We can start to believe our own hype, our own infallibility and our "right" to the market.[50]

Think big

Inspire others, provide direction

From chapter 11 in the book:

Whilst the actions you take, the way that you organise and the focus on detail requires you to think small when it comes to inspiring others, providing direction and moral imperative then think big. Your purpose is not to defend the narrow pass of Thermopylae but instead to defeat the Persian army and save the Greek states.[51]

From chapter 18 of the book:

We need to get out of the mindset of thinking about specific systems and tackle the whole problem. We needed to break away from these isolated individual systems. We needed to change the default delivery mechanism for public services towards online services using automated processes for most citizens. We needed an approached that focused relentlessly on delivery to the citizen and their needs.[52]

Seek the best

From chapter 11 in the book:

Try to find and grow the best people with the best aptitude and attitude for their roles. Invest in keeping them. Don't force them into becoming something they're not. It's perfectly reasonable for a truly gifted systems tester who excels in a town planning world of massively complicated and automated systems to be paid more than the project manager. What you want to avoid is taking exceptional people out of their role and putting them into something they are not suited to simply because they think that is the only way to progress. Leadership, management and engineering are all aptitudes, they are all valuable and they have to work in concert. If the hierarchy of your organisation uniformly reflects your pay scales then you're likely to be draining talent from where it should be and putting it into roles that it is not suited for. This is often done for arguments of "responsibility" or "managing bigger teams" (which also causes people to try and accumulate empires) or "spreading experience" or "career path" but there are alternative ways of achieving this than taking a gifted engineer and turning them into a mediocre project manager. This is probably one of the most difficult areas as ego is quickly encountered.[53]

Phase IV - Continuously Evolving

From chapter 18 in the book:

The final phase is focused on creating an environment that copes with constant shocks and changes. This is the point where strategic play comes to the fore and where we design with pioneers, settlers and town planners. The emphasis is on constant evolution, use of multiple culture, listening to outside ecosystems, understanding that everything is transient and exploiting the landscape.[54]

Exploit the landscape

From chapter 11 in the book:

Use the landscape to your advantage, there are often powerful force multipliers. You might decide not to take advantage of a competitor or a change in the market but that should be a conscious choice.[55]

Design for constant evolution

From chapter 11 in the book:

Create an organisational system which copes with the constant ebb and flow in the landscape. Ideally, changes should flow through your organisation without the needed for constant restructuring. A cell based structure using a system of theft with pioneers, settlers and town planners is one such system.[56]

There is no core

Everything is transient

From chapter 11 in the book:

Everything is transient, whatever you think is core to your company won't be at some point in the future. The only things that are truly static are dead.[57]

Listen to your ecosystems

acts as future sensing engines

From chapter 11 in the book:

There are many different forms of ecosystems and ways to exploit them. These can be powerful sensing engines (e.g. the ILC model) for future change as well as sources of co-operation with others along with defensive and offensive alliances. But ecosystems need management, they need tending as a gardener tends a garden - sometimes you allow them to grow wild, sometime you harvest, sometimes you help direct or constrain them. These are particular skills that you can develop but most important is the principle - listen to them.[58]

From chapter 18 in the book:

We viewed the existing centralized approach as problematic because it was often remote from the real needs of either public service employees, intermediaries or citizens alike. We envisaged a new engineering group that would work in the field and spot and then nurture opportunities for change at the frontline, working closely with service delivery providers.[59]

There is no one culture

e.g. Pioneers, Settlers, Town Planners

From chapter 11 in the book:

Understand that a company which plans for longevity needs to cope with not only the discovery of uncharted components but the use of the industrialised and the transition between these two extremes. You will need different attitudes. You will therefore create many cultures in your organisation e.g. pioneers, settlers and town planners have different cultures. This is not a negative and don't try to grind everyone into a single bland culture. It will not make them happy.[60]

Related Tools

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  58. http://blog.gardeviance.org/2017/01/a-smorgasbord-of-usefulness.html
  59. http://blog.gardeviance.org/2017/08/better-for-less.html
  60. http://blog.gardeviance.org/2017/01/a-smorgasbord-of-usefulness.html

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